London Times, 24 June 1907, p. 6: RUSSIA./ZEMSTVO CONGRESS IN MOSCOW. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) ST. PETERSBURG, JUNE 23. (Excerpt) The Press welcomes the new regulations sanctioned by the Tsar for the promotion of officers of the navy. A distinction is drawn between service at sea and employment on shore. Sub-lieutenants are to be promoted after three years’ service at sea and examination; lieutenants are to be promoted after to the senior grade after five years’ service and after ballot by an assembly of admirals and captains. The rank of lieutenant-captain is revived. Promotion to this rank, and to the ranks of commander, captain, and Rear-admiral also requires a ballot. Vice-admirals are to be selected by the supreme naval authorities. Exceptional promotion is allowed for offiecrs who have distinguished themselves in action. An age limit is fixed for all ranks, but it is more than ample. The regulations are intended to ensure greater attention to duties and efficiency among the junior officers and to check the constant change of personnel and nepotism, from which the navy has notoriously suffered. The officers of the navy are also thereby given a substantial advantage over officers of the army.

Provided by Stephen McLaughlin